Glucocorticoid therapy is associated with an appreciable risk of bone loss, which is most pronounced in the first few months of use. In addition, glucocorticoids increase fracture risk, and fractures occur at higher bone mineral density (BMD) values than occur in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The increased risk of fracture has been reported with doses of prednisone or its equivalent as low as to mg daily [ 1 ]. Thus, glucocorticoid-induced bone loss should be treated aggressively, particularly in those already at high risk for fracture (older, prior fragility fracture). In other individuals, clinical risk factor and bone density assessment may help guide therapy. The prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss will be reviewed here. The clinical features are reviewed separately. (See "Pathogenesis, clinical features, and evaluation of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis" .)
To investigate the effect of two treating principles and formulas, which are named 'invigorating spleen to remove phlem and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction' (Jianpi) and 'invigorate the kidney and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction' (Bushen), on the expression of osteogenic factors in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH), such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and Smads, as well as to explore and compare their mechanisms of prevention and treatment of SONFH.