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Proteoglycans, in addition to calcium hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], are most responsible for providing compressive strength.
Bone is composed of both organic and inorganic components. Inorganic components include calcium hydroxyapatite and osteocalcium phosphate. Organic components include collagen, proteoglycans, matrix proteins, cytokines and growth factors. While Type I collagen is responsible for providing the tensile strength of bone, proteoglycans and calcium hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] are most responsible for providing compressive strength. Proteoglycans contain a core protein with various numbers of covalently attached side chains of glycosaminoglycans. In addition to providing compressive strength, they are also responsible for binding growth factors and inhibiting mineralization.
Knothe et al. review the osteocyte. They discuss that osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, are actively involved in maintaining the bony matrix, and may act as mechanosensors.
Illustration A shows a proteoglycan aggregate, which can form when individual molecules link onto a chain of hyaluronic acid.
Answer 1: Type I collagen is responsible for the tensile strength of bone.
Answer 2: Osteocalcin is the most abundant non-collagenous protein in the matrix and promotes the mineralization and formation of bone.
Answer 4: Osteonectin is believed to have a role in regulating calcium or organizing mineral in matrix.
Answer 5: Osteopontin is a cell-binding protein.
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