The rough endoplasmic reticulum manufactures membranes and secretory proteins . The ribosomes attached to the rough ER synthesize proteins by the process of translation . In certain leukocytes (white blood cells), the rough ER produces antibodies . In pancreatic cells , the rough ER produces insulin. The rough and smooth ER are usually interconnected and the proteins and membranes made by the rough ER move into the smooth ER to be transferred to other locations. Some proteins are sent to the Golgi apparatus by special transport vesicles. After the proteins have been modified in the Golgi, they are transported to their proper destinations within the cell or exported from the cell by exocytosis .
Aldehydes & Ketones Nomenclature of Aldehydes & Ketones Occurrence of Aldehydes & Ketones Natural Products Synthetic Preparation Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones Reversible Addition Reactions Hydration & Hemiacetal Formation Acetal Formation Imine Formation Enamine Formation Cyanohydrin Formation Irreversible Addition Reactions Complex Metal Hydrides Organometallic Reagents Carbonyl Group Modification Wolff-Kishner Reduction Clemmensen Reduction Hydrogenolysis of Thioacetals Oxidations Reactions at the α-Carbon Mechanism of Electrophilic α-Substitution The Aldol Reaction Ambident Enolate Anions Alkylation of Enolate Anions Practice Problems
Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,  along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins. The steroids , all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules . The eighteen-carbon (C18) steroids include the estrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone . The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids .  The secosteroids , comprising various forms of vitamin D , are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure.  Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates,  which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver. The plant equivalents are the phytosterols , such as β-sitosterol , stigmasterol , and brassicasterol ; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth.  The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol .