The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ),  nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone).  Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone .  Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine.  Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . 
One of the follow-up solutions to a cystectomy is the creation of a neobladder (one form of which is named Studer's Ileal Neobladder or the Studer Pouch). A neobladder is a loop of intestine that is surgically fashioned into a pouch and placed in the location of the original bladder. It is then attached to the ureters and the urethra , thus simulating the function of the original organ. The kidneys filter the urine into the neobladder which can often be emptied by muscle control. There are side effects of this complex surgery, including partial shut down of the digestive system (in response to removal of the piece of intestine), incontinence , and the loss of the nerves that signal a full bladder.
In all five patients, abatacept treatment induced remission of FSGS-caused proteinuria. Two of those with recurrent disease have remained in remission for three and four years, respectively, after a single dose of abatacept. The other two required a second dose when proteinuria reappeared a few weeks later and have been in remission for 10 and 12 months, respectively. The patient with high-risk, treatment-resistant disease, who is being treated at MGH, went into remission for the first time in more than a year, continues in remission a year later, and has resumed a normal lifestyle. While she still receives monthly doses of abatacept, she no longer needs the high-dose steroids and immunosuppressive drugs she had depended on, some of which actually increase the risk for kidney failure.