Model development. We performed an iterative, balanced optimization analysis to determine the ability of ToxCast HTS assays to correctly classify the results of guideline endocrine-related assays while maintaining balance between sensitivity and specificity. The process for this analysis is illustrated in Figure 2 . Because each HTS endocrine MOA may have multiple ToxCast HTS assays, we used disjunctive logic employing varied weight-of-evidence thresholds to determine optimal predictive performance. This model tested variable thresholds for the HTS ToxCast assay results represented as unweighted binary data, while the guideline or non-guideline endocrine-related assay results remained static. Initially, the model began with a threshold criterion of one positive ToxCast HTS assay out of the total number of ToxCast HTS assays for a chemical to be considered to perturb a given MOA. Once calculated, the model was then re-run with increasing increments of one assay until all ToxCast HTS assays for a given endocrine MOA were required to be positive for a chemical to be considered to perturb the given MOA. As the threshold for a positive call was increased, a larger weight of evidence was required for a chemical to be considered a “hit” for perturbing the given endocrine MOA. An exception was made for guideline pubertal studies and the ToxCast NVS_NR_hAR assay. Guideline pubertal studies test for effects that can arise through multiple different endocrine-related pathways. For this reason, if a chemical was considered positive in the pubertal assay and the result conflicted with other guideline studies (., receptor binding, reporter gene), the pubertal assay was not included in the weight of evidence. The ToxCast NVS_NR_hAR assay is a human androgen receptor binding assay in the LNCaP prostatic cell line. The androgen receptor in this cell line is known to bind to steroid hormones other than androgens ( Veldscholte et al. 1992 ). For this reason, if a compound was negative in all other HTS-A assays, the result for the NVS_NR_hAR assay was not included in the weight-of-evidence.