These eye drops and ointments contain a combination of a steroid and one or more types of antibiotic for treatment of infection and inflammation of the eye. The steroid reduces inflammation while the antibiotic treats or prevents infection which may be the cause of the infection. Examples of steroids that are used in these eye drops are hydrocortisone, loteprednol, prednisolone, and dexamethasone . Examples of antibiotics used in these formulations include tobramycin, neomycin, bacitracin, polymixin B, and gentamycin. These antibiotics have different mechanisms of action and two or three may be combined in one formulation.
Diagnosis of sex steroid excess or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be challenging. Unlike Cushing's disease, sex steroid excess may have a multitude of manifestations that differ from standard hyperadrenocorticism. In particular, the clinical scenario of a dog with sex steroid imbalance involves one of three systems: dermatologic, reproductive, or hepatic. The history of a dog with hyperadrenocorticism manifesting as sex steroid imbalance often lacks the classical clinical signs of polydipsia and polyuria. Dogs with sex steroid imbalance will often be of specific breeds such as miniature poodles and exhibit trunkal hair loss as the only sign. There is often involvement of the reproductive system, manifested as the growth of perianal adenomas in neutered male or female dogs. The most common laboratory findings consist of elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase and serum alanine transferase. The following article reviews the etiology, common signalment, clinical signs, and laboratory findings associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism caused by sex steroid imbalance and then explores the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment options.
Swimmer's ear, also known as acute otitis externa, is a painful infection in the canal between the outer ear and the eardrum. This condition is known as swimmer's ear because it is most commonly acquired when dirty water enters the ear canal while people swim or bathe. Swimmer's ear can also be caused by damage to the thin layer of skin protecting your ear from improper ear cleaning. A moist environment in the ear canal is necessary for the infection to take root. Know how to identify swimmer’s ear and get treatment before the infection becomes too painful and spreads.