Evidence showed patients with community-acquired pneumonia who received corticosteroids were discharged from hospital one day sooner. Results also suggested that corticosteroid treatment reduces the need for mechanical ventilation (or the requirement for a breathing tube) from nine per cent to five per cent of patients; and the likelihood of a life-threatening complication called acute respiratory distress syndrome from eight to two per cent of patients. The results also raised the possibility of a significant reduction in death rates from nine to 10 per cent of patients down to five to six percent.
The use of HAART has made significant changes to the prognosis of HIV-related pulmonary infections. Currently, the most common HIV-related pulmonary infection diagnosed in developed countries is bacterial pneumonia, and in developing countries, tuberculosis. [ 14 ] An American study of hospitalised patients reported a mortality rate of %. Mortality is about 10-20% in mild-to-moderate cases, rising to 65% in patients who require artificial ventilation. [ 14 ] Due to restricted access to optimal medical care, PCP remains a common AIDS-defining illness in developed nations and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. [ 27 ]