We calculated fat-free mass index (FFMI) in a sample of 157 male athletes, comprising 83 users of anabolic-androgenic steroids and 74 nonusers. FFMI is defined by the formula (fat-free body mass in kg) x (height in meters)-2. We then added a slight correction of x ( m - height) to normalize these values to the height of a -m man. The normalized FFMI values of athletes who had not used steroids extended up to a well-defined limit of . Similarly, a sample of 20 Mr. America winners from the presteroid era (1939-1959), for whom we estimated the normalized FFMI, had a mean FFMI of . By contrast, the FFMI of many of the steroid users in our sample easily exceeded , and that of some even exceeded 30. Thus, although these findings must be regarded as preliminary, it appears that FFMI may represent a useful initial measure to screen for possible steroid abuse, especially in athletic, medical, or forensic situations in which individuals may attempt to deny such behavior.
I must have missed the comment about higher fat levels and their relationship to lean body mass. Thanks for asking me to read it again. I do have an additional question, however. 17% is not obese. I certainly am not “lean” but I am not even remotely “fat”. Might my size be the result of IGF-1 supplementation? I supplemented with Hexaghen for a little over a year when I first started bodybuilding 3 years ago. I was 170 lbs at the time, and in about 1 year and 3 months I gained apx. 50 lbs. However, since then, my gains have been extremely slow. In any case, would IGF-1 supplementation preclude me from being “natural”. I am not big on the literature, so please excuse my ignorance if this is a no brainer. Thanks again.
Now, of the premeditated amounts of carbohydrates you're going to be taking in everyday, there is a timing issue with carbohydrates that must be taken into consideration to maximize its effect. The primary times to consume carbohydrates to take advantage of its protein sparing/anabolic capabilities is in the morning as soon as you wake up (because you haven't eaten for at least 6-8 hours and cortisol levels are elevated) as well as post workout (high glycemic carbohydrates after exercise causes insulin to spike which pulls amino acids from the blood and delivers them to muscle tissue).