Corticosteroid nasal spray glaucoma

Budesonide has a systemic clearance of approximately L/min in 4-6 years old asthmatic children. Per kg body weight children have a clearance which is approximately 50% greater than in adults. The terminal half-life of budesonide after inhalation is approximately hours in asthmatic children. This is about the same as in healthy adults. The Area Under Curve (AUC) after administration of 256 micrograms budesonide from RHINOCORT AQUA is nmol*h/L in children, indicating a higher systemic glucocorticosteroid exposure in children than in adults. At clinically recommended doses, the pharmacokinetics of budesonide are dose-proportional and plasma exposure is correlated to the weight of the patient. Therefore this should be taken into account when establishing paediatric doses.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Corticosteroid nasal spray glaucoma

corticosteroid nasal spray glaucoma

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